Most of the corneal transplants involves the transplantation of the entire corneal thickness. However, there are certain researches that specify that there are times when only the cornea can be transplanted.Which type of corneal transplant suits you depends on the parts that need to be replaced of the cornea.
Here is the list of techniques by which corneal transplantation can be done.
Partial Thickness Transplants:
With the growth and advancement of Science, the invention of many techniques has come into play that makes the transplantation of some of the parts of cornea successful.Though these techniques may not suit everyone who needs a corneal transplant and also they make take the time to perform, but, apart from all the issues, partial thickness transplants are less risky and also ensures quick recovery times.
Depending upon the layers that needs to be transplanted the surgeon may make use of different techniques. The techniques can further be split depending upon if it involves front portion corneal transplant or a back portion transplant.Most of the procedures are done by using instruments like trephine and also lasers when required. All the procedures can be done by using local anaesthesia. It does not ask for long stay in the hospital; rather a patient can go back to their homes on the very same day of the procedure.
Techniques for transplanting the front portion of the cornea.
The procedure for transplanting the front portion of the cornea can be done by following two different techniques. They are:
- Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (ALK):
The procedure involves removing and replacing the outer layers of the frontal portion of the cornea.
- Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty:
Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty involves removing and then replacing the middle and outer layers of the cornea by keeping intact the inner layers of the cornea.
Both the procedures involve the use of stitches that fixes the transplanted part of the cornea.
Techniques for transplantation of the back portion of the cornea:
Similar to the techniques used for transplanting the front portion of the cornea, the transplantation of the back parts is also done by following two different procedures. They are:
- Descemet’s Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSEK):
The internal lining of the cornea is replaced along with 25 percent of the tissues that support cornea known as corneal stroma.
- Descemet’s Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK):
This process involves only the replacement of the inner layers of the corneal cells.
Unlike the transplantation of front portion of the cornea, this transplantation does not require stitches. Instead, an air bubble is placed to hold the transplanted tissue at its place.